A global food crisis may be less than a decade away | Sara Menker

A global food crisis may be less than a decade away | Sara Menker

Since 2009, the world has been stuck on a single narrative
around a coming global food crisis and what we need to do to avoid it. How do we feed
nine billion people by 2050? Every conference, podcast
and dialogue around global food security starts with this question and goes on to answer it by saying we need to produce
70 percent more food. The 2050 narrative started to evolve shortly after global food prices
hit all-time highs in 2008. People were suffering and struggling, governments and world leaders needed to show us
that they were paying attention and were working to solve it. The thing is, 2050
is so far into the future that we can’t even relate to it, and more importantly, if we keep doing what we’re doing, it’s going to hit us
a lot sooner than that. I believe we need to ask
a different question. The answer to that question needs to be framed differently. If we can reframe the old narrative and replace it with new numbers that tell us a more complete pictures, numbers that everyone can understand and relate to, we can avoid the crisis altogether. I was a commodities trader in my past life and one of the things
that I learned trading is that every market has a tipping point, the point at which
change occurs so rapidly that it impacts the world and things change forever. Think of the last financial crisis, or the dot-com crash. So here’s my concern. We could have a tipping point in global food and agriculture if surging demand surpasses the agricultural system’s
structural capacity to produce food. This means at this point supply
can no longer keep up with demand despite exploding prices, unless we can commit
to some type of structural change. This time around, it won’t be about stock markets and money. It’s about people. People could starve
and governments may fall. This question of at what point
does supply struggle to keep up with surging demand is one that started off as an interest
for me while I was trading and became an absolute obsession. It went from interest to obsession when I realized through my research
how broken the system was and how very little data was being used
to make such critical decisions. That’s the point I decided to walk away
from a career on Wall Street and start an entrepreneurial journey to start Gro Intelligence. At Gro, we focus on bringing this data and doing the work to make it actionable, to empower decision-makers at every level. But doing this work, we also realized that the world, not just world leaders, but businesses and citizens
like every single person in this room, lacked an actionable guide on how we can avoid
a coming global food security crisis. And so we built a model, leveraging the petabytes
of data we sit on, and we solved for the tipping point. Now, no one knows
we’ve been working on this problem and this is the first time
that I’m sharing what we discovered. We discovered that the tipping point
is actually a decade from now. We discovered that the world will be short 214 trillion calories by 2027. The world is not in a position
to fill this gap. Now, you’ll notice that the way I’m framing this
is different from how I started, and that’s intentional, because until now this problem has been
quantified using mass: think kilograms, tons, hectograms, whatever your unit of choice is in mass. Why do we talk about food
in terms of weight? Because it’s easy. We can look at a photograph
and determine tonnage on a ship by using a simple pocket calculator. We can weigh trucks,
airplanes and oxcarts. But what we care about
in food is nutritional value. Not all foods are created equal, even if they weigh the same. This I learned firsthand when I moved from Ethiopia
to the US for university. Upon my return back home, my father, who was so excited to see me, greeted me by asking why I was fat. Now, turns out that eating approximately the same amount of food
as I did in Ethiopia, but in America, had actually lent
a certain fullness to my figure. This is why we should care about calories, not about mass. It is calories which sustain us. So 214 trillion calories
is a very large number, and not even the most dedicated of us think in the hundreds
of trillions of calories. So let me break this down differently. An alternative way to think about this is to think about it in Big Macs. 214 trillion calories. A single Big Mac has 563 calories. That means the world will be short
379 billion Big Macs in 2027. That is more Big Macs
than McDonald’s has ever produced. So how did we get
to these numbers in the first place? They’re not made up. This map shows you
where the world was 40 years ago. It shows you net calorie gaps
in every country in the world. Now, simply put, this is just calories
consumed in that country minus calories produced
in that same country. This is not a statement
on malnutrition or anything else. It’s simply saying how many calories
are consumed in a single year minus how many are produced. Blue countries are net calorie exporters, or self-sufficient. They have some in storage for a rainy day. Red countries are net calorie importers. The deeper, the brighter the red, the more you’re importing. 40 years ago, such few countries
were net exporters of calories, I could count them with one hand. Most of the African continent, Europe, most of Asia, South America excluding Argentina, were all net importers of calories. And what’s surprising is that China
used to actually be food self-sufficient. India was a big net importer of calories. 40 years later, this is today. You can see the drastic transformation
that’s occurred in the world. Brazil has emerged
as an agricultural powerhouse. Europe is dominant in global agriculture. India has actually flipped
from red to blue. It’s become food self-sufficient. And China went from that light blue to the brightest red
that you see on this map. How did we get here? What happened? So this chart shows you India and Africa. Blue line is India, red line is Africa. How is it that two regions
that started off so similarly in such similar trajectories take such different paths? India had a green revolution. Not a single African country
had a green revolution. The net outcome? India is food self-sufficient and in the past decade
has actually been exporting calories. The African continent now imports
over 300 trillion calories a year. Then we add China, the green line. Remember the switch
from the blue to the bright red? What happened and when did it happen? China seemed to be
on a very similar path to India until the start of the 21st century, where it suddenly flipped. A young and growing population combined with significant economic growth made its mark with a big bang and no one in the markets saw it coming. This flip was everything
to global agricultural markets. Luckily now, South America was starting to boom
at the same time as China’s rise, and so therefore, supply and demand
were still somewhat balanced. So the question becomes, where do we go from here? Oddly enough, it’s not a new story, except this time
it’s not just a story of China. It’s a continuation of China, an amplification of Africa and a paradigm shift in India. By 2023, Africa’s population is forecasted
to overtake that of India’s and China’s. By 2023, these three regions combined will make up over half
the world’s population. This crossover point starts to present
really interesting challenges for global food security. And a few years later,
we’re hit hard with that reality. What does the world look like in 10 years? So far, as I mentioned,
India has been food self-sufficient. Most forecasters predict
that this will continue. We disagree. India will soon become
a net importer of calories. This will be driven both by the fact that demand is growing
from a population growth standpoint plus economic growth. It will be driven by both. And even if you have
optimistic assumptions around production growth, it will make that slight flip. That slight flip
can have huge implications. Next, Africa will continue
to be a net importer of calories, again driven by population growth
and economic growth. This is again assuming optimistic
production growth assumptions. Then China, where population is flattening out, calorie consumption will explode because the types of calories consumed are also starting to be
higher-calorie-content foods. And so therefore, these three regions combined start to present a really interesting
challenge for the world. Until now, countries with calorie deficits have been able to meet these deficits by importing from surplus regions. By surplus regions, I’m talking about North America, South America and Europe. This line chart over here shows you the growth and the projected growth
over the next decade of production from North America,
South America and Europe. What it doesn’t show you is that most of this growth is actually
going to come from South America. And most of this growth is going to come
at the huge cost of deforestation. And so when you look
at the combined demand increase coming from India, China
and the African continent, and look at it versus
the combined increase in production coming from India,
China, the African continent, North America, South America and Europe, you are left with
a 214-trillion-calorie deficit, one we can’t produce. And this, by the way, is actually assuming
we take all the extra calories produced in North America,
South America and Europe and export them solely
to India, China and Africa. What I just presented to you
is a vision of an impossible world. We can do something to change that. We can change consumption patterns, we can reduce food waste, or we can make a bold commitment to increasing yields exponentially. Now, I’m not going to go into discussing changing consumption patterns
or reducing food waste, because those conversations
have been going on for some time now. Nothing has happened. Nothing has happened
because those arguments ask the surplus regions
to change their behavior on behalf of deficit regions. Waiting for others
to change their behavior on your behalf, for your survival, is a terrible idea. It’s unproductive. So I’d like to suggest an alternative
that comes from the red regions. China, India, Africa. China is constrained in terms
of how much more land it actually has available for agriculture, and it has massive
water resource availability issues. So the answer really lies
in India and in Africa. India has some upside
in terms of potential yield increases. Now this is the gap
between its current yield and the theoretical
maximum yield it can achieve. It has some unfarmed
arable land remaining, but not much, India is quite land-constrained. Now, the African continent,
on the other hand, has vast amounts of arable land remaining and significant
upside potential in yields. Somewhat simplified picture here, but if you look at sub-Saharan
African yields in corn today, they are where North American
yields were in 1940. We don’t have 70-plus years
to figure this out, so it means we need to try something new and we need to try something different. The solution starts with reforms. We need to reform and commercialize the agricultural industries in Africa and in India. Now, by commercialization — commercialization is not
about commercial farming alone. Commercialization is about leveraging data to craft better policies, to improve infrastructure, to lower the transportation costs and to completely reform
banking and insurance industries. Commercialization
is about taking agriculture from too risky an endeavor
to one where fortunes can be made. Commercialization
is not about just farmers. Commercialization is about
the entire agricultural system. But commercialization
also means confronting the fact that we can no longer place
the burden of growth on small-scale farmers alone, and accepting that commercial farms
and the introduction of commercial farms could provide certain economies of scale that even small-scale
farmers can leverage. It is not about small-scale farming
or commercial agriculture, or big agriculture. We can create the first successful models
of the coexistence and success of small-scale farming
alongside commercial agriculture. This is because, for the first time ever, the most critical tool
for success in the industry — data and knowledge — is becoming cheaper by the day. And very soon, it won’t matter
how much money you have or how big you are to make optimal decisions
and maximize probability of success in reaching your intended goal. Companies like Gro are working
really hard to make this a reality. So if we can commit
to this new, bold initiative, to this new, bold change, not only can we solve
the 214-trillion gap that I talked about, but we can actually set the world
on a whole new path. India can remain food self-sufficient and Africa can emerge
as the world’s next dark blue region. The new question is, how do we produce 214 trillion calories to feed 8.3 billion people by 2027? We have the solution. We just need to act on it. Thank you. (Applause)


  1. Nearly all of the over-population will come from third-world regions, namely Africa, Central-South America and India. First-world regions (North America, Europe, Asia) are either showing minimal growth or none at all.

    Unless third-world nations can be raised up economically, the situation will get dire. First-world nations will face a hard choice – lock down their borders to protect their own interests or open up to a massive influx of migrants. As most of these migrants will be uneducated and lack skills to compete in modern economies, they will pose an unacceptable burden on the social services of host countries.

    It's doubtful that poorer countries will pull themselves out of this mess anytime soon. You can't build a healthy economy in crime-ridden socialist cesspools, run by dictators and corrupt bureaucrats.

    The speaker didn't address any of this, of course. No TED Talk would be complete without a healthy dose of Political Correctness and Leftist propaganda.

  2. Pure alarmist horseshit. Stop using chemical fertilizers and go back to organics and there is enough food for 20 + billion people. The ONLY people who agree with this ditz are morons who have never farmed.

  3. She is ignoring the climate change: Africa, India and China will both experience huge draughts in near future and many parts will not be habitable in year 2100 because of the heat. Alaso the diminshin groundwater level is a problem.

  4. We're in big big trouble…just the decomposition of daily food waste in the U.S. Vs harvest is way off kilter…methane release from our food waste alone contributes to green house gases big time…we fart and so does rotten food…

  5. We're all gonna end up killing each other before it's over…hate to say it, but starving masses in modern society….wowzers…

  6. If they can't feed their people it's their fault and no one else's responsibility. They need to stop massive population growth.

  7. The GSM starting in 2019 will user in the global famine only hinted at in the 2008 food riots. As time progresses, the end of the interglacial period will hammer down the world's populations and economies.

  8. The seas can be illustrated with the American bison. The thought at times of plenty was that like seemingly unlimited salmon in the North West or the herring and cod in Europe.
    We have evolved to be just in time
    It's the single biggest threat
    You and I have been breeding but not dying like in the past. We don't have a natural birth death balance.
    That was the second one
    The last big one is the combination of the first two combined with a dust bowl and
    el nino just taking about 25 to 30 percent of the food
    The result is that at least a billion people will starve to death before the next crop comes to harvest
    Very real

  9. China lleva años comprando o alquilando tierras de cultivo en el continente africano para producir alimentos

  10. Im just going to ask, did she mention the Grand Solar Minimum? I already know she didnt. Its TED. Which is interesting at times but the science is terrible. If you combined Edward Bernays, John Dee, and the Catholic Inquisition you would get mainstream science in 2018. Anyways, you might want to look into whats happening to your climate here on earth and throughout the solar system, cold weather crop losses, the total shifting of global agricultural zones, etc….all
    because of the SUN.

  11. Smart move then of South Africa and Zimbabwe to take commercial farms from white professional farmers and give it to untrained black sustainability farmers. And hope they can make the same amounts.

  12. The presenter said the world could make enough food to prevent enormous calorie deficits because farmers in Africa and elsewhere had yields the same as farmers in the US in 1940. Thus, these farmers need only adapt the industrial food production used in the US. However, this depends on finite and diminishing water resources and heavy use of petroleum derived chemicals. I think it likely that watershed scarcity will become a more acute problem sooner than later and there is credible evidence that the once vaunted peak oil may be on the horizon. I would want to know how these and perhaps other factors would impact food production.

  13. My solution is this: Redistribute the wealth from the hands of the rich to the poor. In Islam, there is already a system for this. It's called zakat.

  14. The global human population should be reduced to a maximum of 2 billion people then most of our problems would become non-issues.

  15. There are definite technological dietary ways humans can help avoid hunger. However one really obvious way, would be for people to stop having so many children, especially in sub Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. It might be cultural to have as many children as you can, but we now have modern medicine and technology, so many more children survive to adulthood. In the past a lot would of died of disease. By 2050, not only could there be a lack of food for everyone to eat, but there will be not enough jobs and resources for everyone. Then there will be great social dissatisfaction and upheaval. Resulting in conflict and possible wars. People will try to move to other countries were there they think there are more opportunities. Ok this might not happen if humans are resourceful enough to avoid it, but Governments of some countries need to make their citizens aware of this potential problem. In some ways its probably too late as these children have already been born. Though government should make these potential problems clear to there citizens.

  16. Putting our resources in farming India and Africa? The future food needs should be met by the Americas the best growers in the world. North and South America could feed the world.

  17. It's now about 1.5 years after this TED talk, and things are happening that are not mentioned in this talk. The weather has been doing peculiar things all over the globe, resulting in heavy crop losses in various areas and some farms closing down as a result. Whether the climate is warming, or cooling — only one thing is not debatable: Climate is altering, and it's hitting agriculture hard. It will take time for farming methods to adjust to these unusual weather conditions, and in the meantime there will be continued large crop losses. One of the most sustainable solutions that could be practiced immediately and sustained in most parts of the world is if people who are not "farmers" begin growing as much of their own food as they can (even turning a portion of one's back yard into a vegetable garden would help).

  18. You can thank fast food and restaurants. There the most wasteful when it comes to food. You should stop supporting them but who cares anyway, Gotta have that big Mac right .

  19. I was a maid to Mairie Antoinette in a previous life. Or was it Cleopatra ? Also a nun at some point. If I had a dime for every hippy dipshit who told me that…

  20. They Can Sweetie, It's just that somebody lied… There's more than enough food for everybody but that's not what they want you to think boo. When 214 Trillion gets taken away don't be surprised when the "Hunger Games" Come Promptly After. Because they will have all the food and quintessentially they want us to kill each other off to get it, which is what they really want from the get-go anyways isn't it? 🤷💁

  21. some poor on one meal aday in uk , thats now, in ten years is that going to be half a meal then, in ten years we could be free of hunger in uk, if we start growing our own to feed your family as in older times. water is in abudance in the uk. stop selling off our farms, look at china what is going on, africa will be the bread basket of the future. a spade , fork, and water, can save us all.

  22. Isn't there a lot of proof out there about how harmful the green revolution was and it didn't do much to benefit the people in developing countries?

  23. How do we feed billions of people's? Easy to answer. Get them to feed themselves. Education is the problem. We've built a reliant society. A society where thousands live off the backs of a handful of growers. It's Takers and givers. Educate the people's to feed themselves. Surely u get the saying give a man a fish and he eats for one day. Give him an apple tree and he eats for ever. Food is true wealth. U can have all the money in the world but if u aint got the foods ur money is worthless cuz ur dead. Give people's the tools and education quick to feed themselves. Wats the point of algebra if u don't even know how to feed urselfs. A self sufficient people's builds a self sufficient world. A more sustainable world. It's very poor poverty educations wen 3 quarters of the world can't even feed themselves. The homeless can feed themselves given the means. All the poor can. Even the rich can. Most so called rich ain't even got a carrot they can call their own, proper paupers food wise. Grow and use every space possible! Serious every single person has got to help with this problem. Water is not a problem. I'm got part of my garden with no water, I've just stretched a big pipe to it, water can be taken to the driest places we have we put our minds to it. Serious we need a growing economy. Every single person has got to do their bit. Only way is for everyone to try and grow their own. Action now!

  24. None of the arguments over calories etc matter. There's gonna be massive food shortages, Wat gonna matter is actions to make sure Uve got something to chew on regardless. Better to have some foods than no foods. Please don't make daft silly comments if you ain't never fed urself in ur life. Only growing and gardening will save U. Ain't no one gonna get their act together and save the whole world. And yet the more that hear grow ur own, the more that will survive. Teach the kids to grow rapid. Just cuz u got foods now don't think ur safe, this is future things, but it cud smack many in the face any day now. Get Growing!!!!

  25. If you have some space and then I even talk about a balkon on appartment you should grow your own food. Some species of beans you could grow and dry your harvest. Inside you could grow proteïnes by growing insects like grasshoppers which you feed from foodwaste and even grass. Gather some of the abunded wild edibles such as raspberrys, elderberrys, dandelion and nuts. You could find them in most naborhoods and city parks.

  26. So now with America's bread basket davasated how do your numbers look ? Every able person including myself needs to grow some food,,,,,,yesterday !!!!!

  27. Permaculture and back to eden gardening, big efforts and small! Do what you can NOW, and when you have a hold on that, start expanding. Start in your own backyard, then your friends, and then rally the community together to convert public spaces. We need to bring nature and habitat back!

  28. As a inter-national trade and in support to the algriculture markets of the USA , particularly the gen-modified corn and beans, China government imported lots of food from the US. that is the true. China still have the ability and capability to feed its population. Lots of the farm land in the inner mainland, and these areas, due to the low income, not enough farmer working, but once there were the crisis, which I believe so pationately will never happen, the government can take swift action on it.

  29. Their won't be many humans alive by 2050 ,we might even be completely extinct by then . Food production will crash as temperatures rise even with as little as 0.3 from the current reading , unpredictable weather will also make crops fail more often . But theirs always hope for fools!.

  30. The food you ate today traveled 1500 miles to land on your plate. Let that sink in. When we talk about problems in the trillions it's hard to imagine that we little plebs can make any difference. Who cares if I don't finish dinner tonight, if the problem doesn't happen for 10 years. We've got to start getting it in our heads that this is going to affect everyone of us. Do want to starve? Do you want your children to starve? No. You don't. Start learning how to grow something. Anything. Grow anything. There's time to learn and there's time to change. Do not wait for the government/culture/dominate society to fix this. This is too big for that. We all need to do our part in a very big way. I have a 7,000 square foot garden. You can do it too. Start with one plant.

  31. It's gonna happen way before 2027 we're going into a grand solar minimum happens every 200 / 400 years crop loss famine 1600 monger minimum 1800 Dalton minimum

  32. I admire the speech she has given however, we DO NOT have the solution. The solution suggested here will last one generation at best assuming almost stagnant population growth, the reality is I am afraid far more bleak. Look how human population has doubled through-out human history, every generation. Now ask yourself what happens when you double 9 Billion people.. the reality is we can not indefinitely support population growth. IT is a FACT. The time when this talk is aimed at.. that panic at that point will be how to support 21+ Billion people by 2090.

  33. Or we can reduce population. And that's the actual trend. If the human virus can not regulate its expansion rate then the wars will.

  34. Anyone know whats happening with the ozone hole where our atmosphere was getting sucked into space and we were all going to die horribly with burning skin falling off our faces and bones.. did we stick a big plaster on it an refer it to out patients for regular check up, i for one am so glad the eco warriors still keep the Ozone front and foremost in all our minds as we try trudge through our first world challenges, with the chilling spectre of our looming inferno daily, so I don't worry about potatoes tomorrow when there are fries today and iPad's to keep the child masses muted and shielded and protected from their firey demise, sometimes it's all I can do not to cry as they struggle to wait for the PS5 or Xbox Scarlett or go PC now with the new RTX range of GPUs. Yes life is hard, so damn hard. But as the Ozone discussion has shown us, ignoring the issue and media spin dosent make it go away and make the environmentalists look for the next apocalypse scenario, or does it hmmmm.

  35. why there is a potential for a global food shortage, ask the governments who are closing down large scale food production areas and the remaining areas the local farmers are going bankrupt with no support from governments why because they value the dollar and green fascist alarmists propaganda more than human life.

  36. It jumps out at me that counting calories doesn't ensure nutrition. Africa can raise those yields using big agro chemistry and then watch nutrition per calorie fall as it has in Europe and Americas; watch soils become exhausted and watch cancer and allergy rates skyrocket as well.

  37. We waste so much food. So I don't believe this. I also think sustainable living will be much more prominent before we even have a problem.

  38. The Elite and rulers of the world don't want what she's talking about. They don't want to farm more land. They just want to Depopulate the planet of humans. Period. Agenda 21 and Agenda 2030. Oh Yeah, you better believe it.

  39. Research how many pounds of beef the United States has readily available, look at how much of this is used in McDonalds alone, you'll find the ratio is drastically too high, especially when you haven't even included other fast food franchises, there's no possible way the food is pure…we are in a food famine now in 2019, the demonic elites that rule this world are feeding us a ground up mix of animals and many studies have found traces of human remains, along with worms in ground beef…we need each other people…I pray those of us that are lost in these last days will be shown the truth and the light that is Jesus Christ and turn you towards HIM, GOD bless you all, believers and the lost alike.

  40. Look into how much food we feed to factory farmed animals and you will find we feed most of certain crops like soy to animals. If we all went vegan, problem solved.

  41. The countries, cultures, peoples that are right now going without food, without water, are the ones who need it the most. It is really really too bad the particular combinations of the trends of falling freshwater aquifers, a warming planet, out of control populations, falling food supplies…frankly, untold billions will die from lack of foods & water. In Africa, we see women head of giant families, spending all day just hiking to find water, ecking out minimums for caloric intakes…when the wells go dry, as they are right now, that daylong hike will eventually turn into a death-march just looking for water, let alone food. It is an inevitability sorry to say…if your personal food resource, water source is not secured, if yourself as an individual depend solely on others, your very life will be in danger in the coming decades…where will you go, what will you do when the water faucets don't give you the water you need?, the local store, the food you need? do you KNOW how to get by without others? Imagine that cute little store you get your bagels from, what will you do when the doors close? Don't even think about cruising the area to see who is open, who isn't, who has food, who doesn't…untold thousands of others have already thought about that..
    This unwinding of civilization will be slow, arduous, cruel, "inhumane", …but indeed, we brought it upon ourselves, a fully unsustainable civilization, insane counts of peoples will die, many will live as well, one just has to be in the right place at the right time.

  42. We waste a ridiculous amount of food. We also use most of our corn to feed cattle. Perhaps if we all wasted less and ate less beef, we could increase food reserves by 30%.I'll also add that calories are irrelevant. It's the quality of food that's important. IF THE POPULATION IS GETTING BAD CALORIES, THEY HAVE A MASSIVE INCREASE IN HEALTHCARE COSTS. If the get their energy from good food, they are healthier and are a minimal burden on the system.

  43. And this is why they want to entice people from Africa to migrate to Europe, North America, etc. The elites want those resources for themselves. More colonialism.

  44. When farmers are being attacked and killed in Africa this problem solves itself in a much darker way,,,feed the people or run for your life. The solution is stop attacking farmers.

  45. It takes roughly 3,500 calories in crops to produce a 410 calorie mcdouble. The reason people starve is because others desire burgers and steaks daily.

    Just imagine the control the us could have if it stopped consuming so much protein and with the extra calories made other countries dependant.

  46. I deliver appliances..and person after person gets a huge fridge…wether it's 2 people or 6..just get what u need please..keep it simple

  47. Aarg, the thing we need to do is to regulate international trade so that deforestation and similar things don't pay off. Everything else is secondary or nonsense.

  48. we are so f**ked. we individual citizens simply can not fight against the power of conglomerates. they have grown so large in size that they can manipulate legislation to their advantage further perpetuating the growth of their size. what can we do? they own the land, production, logistics, communications, data, majority of capital || this is domination

  49. How absurd. How unaware. Anybody, everybody can grow all the food they need in a small space in their home or apartment for very little cost. All you need is a few seeds, a little soil, a little water…4 feet wide, 8 feet high is all that is required for 2 people….Vertical Vegetable Gardening

  50. "How do we feed 9 billion people by 2050" Short answer, we can't. Shifting weather patterns, accelerating depletions of groundwaters, entrenched poverty along with corrupt governments…The haves & the have nots…those of the have nots are just now starting their mass migrations over the Mediterranean…just a trickle at first…

  51. These places will make it:
    🇺🇸🇨🇦 (except Pacific Coast)

  52. For various reasons we won't get much above 8 billion by 2050, and by 2075 we'll be down to 7.5 billion. India also had a green revolution on the back of using up all their water. So much is connected when it comes to the climate crisis, yet, we humans like looking at specifics, like this video. This is why we won't deal with the crisis.

  53. Why you made no mention of vertical farms which uses a tenth of the water for cultivation and needs no land??

  54. How can people want quantity over quality?
    Have one child, feed and educate the child properly, instead of producing dozens of starving children and then thinking how to exploit earth more to produce more.
    And no care for other life forms on earth other than human.
    Many animals are getting extinct.

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