Caloric value of novel carbohydrates fed to pigs

Caloric value of novel carbohydrates fed to pigs


Hello. I am Dr. Sarah Cervantes-Pahm, and
I am here to share with you my research on caloric value of novel carbohydrates fed to
pigs. Increased intake of dietary fiber is associated
with several health benefits. These health benefits include blood sugar and cholesterol
control, colon disease prevention, and the management of body weight. The recommended dietary fiber intake is between
25 to 38 grams per day, depending on if you are a man or a woman. But the average dietary
fiber intake is only half of that recommendation. Therefore, there is a need to increase the
intake of dietary fiber. Novel carbohydrates are carbohydrates that
are not digestible in the small intestines. Therefore, by definition, they are dietary
fibers. They are commercially available, and they are intended to be incorporated in beverages,
pastry, and other food preparations to increase dietary fiber intake in humans. The four novel carbohydrates used in this
experiment were: two types of insoluble fibers — and those were resistant starch 60, abbreviated
as RS 60, and resistant starch 75, abbreviated as RS 75. And there were also two types of
soluble fiber: soluble corn fiber, abbreviated as SCF 70, and pullulan. The U.S. food labeling regulations assign
caloric values for dietary fibers. For insoluble dietary fiber, they assigned a caloric value
of 0 kcal/kg. And for soluble dietary fibers, they assigned a caloric value of 4000 kcal/kg,
a caloric value that is similar to that of a very digestible form of carbohydrate. And
to calculate for the caloric value or the metabolizable energy of the carbohydrate,
the concentration of insoluble fiber is subtracted from the concentration of total carbohydrates
and the difference is multiplied by 4 kcal/g. And that is how we obtained the caloric value
or the metabolizable energy of the carbohydrate. However, the use of these energy conversion
factors, such as the 0 for insoluble dietary fiber or 4 kcal for soluble dietary fiber,
may be misleading. And this is according to Livesey and others in 2000. Therefore, there
is a need to measure the metabolizable energy of these novel carbohydrates. Therefore, the objective of this experiment
was to measure the ME of the novel carbohydrates and compare it to the ME in maltodextrin,
which in our case is our control. And second is to compare the in vivo values with the
ME obtained from the FDA food labeling equation. Our hypothesis for this experiment is that
the ME of the novel carbohydrates is less than that of maltodextrin, and that the FDA
calculated metabolizable energy of the novel carbohydrates are different from the in vivo
ME obtained in pigs. So for this purpose, we used a total of 72
growing barrows with an average body weight of 22 kilograms. And we housed them in metabolism
cages, and the pigs were arranged in a completely randomized design. Six diets were prepared. Diet 1 was the basal
diet, and it is just basically a corn-soybean meal diet. And for Diet 2, we got 90% of the
basal diet and added 10% of the maltodextrin. For Diet 3, we took 90% of the basal diet
and added 10% resistant starch 60. For Diet 4, we took 90% of the basal diet and added
10% RS 75. For Diet 5, we had 90% basal diet with 10% soluble corn fiber, and for Diet
6, we had 90% basal diet with 10% pullulan. The pigs were fed 2.5 times the estimated
energy requirement for maintenance. And the pigs were adapted to the diet for seven days,
and then we had five days of collection period. We did the balance study using the marker
to marker procedure as outlined by Adeola in 2001. The data were analyzed using PROC mixed of
SAS, with the diet as the fixed effect and pig and period as the random effect. For the results… This table presents the nutrient composition
of maltodextrin and the novel carbohydrates. The concentration of dry matter at maltodextrin
is at 97.41%, and the concentration of dry matter in the novel carbohydrates ranged between
90.07 to 94.80%. Crude protein and ash were less than one percent in maltodextrin and
the novel carbohydrates. And the concentration of total carbohydrates were a little bit greater
in maltodextrin, at 96.48%, and the concentration of total carbohydrates were between 89.35%
to 94.32% in the novel carbohydrates. The total carbohydrates were calculated as dry
matter minus the sum of crude protein and ash. Acid hydrolyzed ether extract was analyzed
in these samples but none was detected. Gross energy in maltodextrin and the novel carbohydrates
were between 3738 to 3914 kcal/kg. This graph shows the metabolizable energy
of the ingredients obtained from pigs. The graph shows that the ME of maltodextrin, in
the red bar, is 3434 kcal, and the ME of all the novel carbohydrates were less than the
ME of maltodextrin. Among the novel carbohydrates, pullulan had a greater ME compared with RS
60, RS 75, and soluble corn fiber 70. This graph shows the ME of the novel carbohydrates
obtained in pigs presented in the upper graph, and the ME of the carbohydrates calculated
using the FDA labeling equation at the lower graph. The ME of maltodextrin, as calculated
using the FDA labeling equation, is 3.96 cal/g dry matter. And this value is close to what
we expect. But the ME obtained in pigs is a bit lower than 3.96. The ME of RS 60, RS
75, and pullulan, calculated using the FDA labeling equation, were about two to four
times less than in vivo values. But the calculated ME of soluble corn fiber 70 were approximately
two times greater than in vivo values. So this tells us that the ME values obtained
from in vivo procedures are not the same as the ME values that we calculate from the FDA
labeling equation. So in conclusion, the ME of RS 60, RS 75, soluble corn fiber 70, and
pullulan range from 1804 to 2918 kcal/kg, and these values were less than the ME in
maltodextrin, which was at 3434 kcal/kg dry matter. From the results of this experiment, we showed
that RS 60 and RS 75 are insoluble fibers, but their caloric value is not 0. Similarly,
soluble corn fiber 70 and pullulan are soluble fibers, but their caloric value is not 4000
kcal/kg. We also showed from this experiment that the
calculated ME values obtained from the FDA labeling equation over- or under-estimates
the in vivo ME of the novel carbohydrates obtained in pigs. This study implies that classifying dietary
fibers as soluble and insoluble fibers for caloric value evaluation may be incorrect.
And that is because solubility could not predict the ME of an ingredient. So before I end, I would like to thank Tate
and Lyle for the financial support of this study. And if you need some more informaiton on feed
or feed ingredients, I would like to direct you to our website at http://nutrition.ansci.illinois.edu.
Thank you and have a great day.

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