Defeating Disease with Whole-Food Plant-Based-Diets. What to Eat – with Author Brenda Davis

Defeating Disease with Whole-Food Plant-Based-Diets. What to Eat - with Author Brenda Davis

good morning can you guys hear me alright oh good well it's a real privilege to be here I come from Kelowna British Columbia so it's just a tiny bit colder there than it is here not that much though probably both but pretty close to the same but anyway I am delighted to be with you thank you for coming out so early this morning and and many thanks to the people that came from so far away I met two this morning one from Austria a couple from Australia and a couple from Germany so that's pretty exciting so my my presentation this morning is can I can we pause for a second what was my time supposed to start at 1 hour and 30 minutes okay okay so else I guess it's in 113 I'm going and I'm not gonna get it done so okay okay the my talk this morning is called defeating disease with a whole food plant-based diet what to eat and I've basically divided it into two parts part one we'll be talking about diet and disease and really about the strength of the link and also why the plant-based advantage and the second part is the what to eat part and we'll talk about ten steps to an optimal plant-based diet so part one diet and disease this is what we know we know that about 70 percent of the deaths in the developed world are due to chronic diseases of our own making an estimated 90% of type 2 diabetes 80 to 90 percent of heart disease and 40 to 70 percent of cancers are considered entirely preventable in 2011 the World Health Organization identified the four big lifestyle culprits and they identified them as being a sudden pterri lifestyle excess of alcohol tobacco and an unhealthy diet and they identified the unhealthy diet as the number one risk factor and they defined an unhealthy diet as one that is based on processed foods with added fat sugar and salt and animal products rich in saturated fats it's low in vegetables fruits legumes whole grains nuts and other high-fiber foods and I want you to dissect this just a little bit they really identify two categories of foods that are responsible for our epidemic of chronic disease and those are number one processed foods with added fat sugar and salt and number two animal products rich in saturated fats those they identifies the two big culprits what do they say can help to prevent disease vegetables fruits legumes whole grains nuts and seeds plant-based foods that are rich in in fiber and phytochemicals and so on at the highest risk are inactive populations consuming western-style diets the highest rates globally we find in North America northern Europe Australia and of course the developing countries who are rapidly adopting our Western ways and this is I mean we've probably all seen it but it really is very sad to see because so many of these populations that lived off the land for so many generations very rapidly develop these diseases when they start eating the way that we're eating at the lowest risk our populations who live simply are physically active and consume unprocessed plant-based diets the lowest rates globally are some parts of rural Asia parts of South America and of course the blue zones and the blue zones for those of you that are not familiar with the blue zones these are places in the world where people live the longest healthiest lives they have more canarians people that live to be at least a hundred than anywhere else in the world but what's really interesting about these populations is not only do these people live a long time but in the latter stages of their lives they're still productive even at ninety or a hundred years of age they're still walking up the sides of the mountains and gardening and and that's what's really interesting about the Blue Zones and there are five Blue Zones Okinawa Sardinia Italy Loma Linda California and that's the seventh-day adventists the vegetarian Adventists a Korea Greece and the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica and if you look at what common sort of thread can you weave through all of these long-lived healthy populations there are several and the first is that they tend to have a very strong sense of family they tend not to smoke they're strongly socially engaged they do constant moderate physical activities so they're moving all day long they're doing their gardening they're walking and so forth and where diet is concerned there are two big factors that are common to all Blue Zones number one they all consume legumes or beans lentils peas so forth as part of their their foundational foods and two they all consume plant-based diets every single one not necessarily vegetarian or vegan just the Adventists are vegetarian or vegan but very strongly plant-based and this man that you see standing here is an Okinawan centenarian this man is a hundred or more years of age he was just identified as a centenarian and just just look at this man look at he's got a shovel over his shoulders look at the definition of the muscles in the arm his in his arms his veins is this not what we all wouldn't look like 100 years old this is unbeliever he's so cute you know and this and the reality is is we have really and truly mountains of evidence where plant-based diets are concerned truckloads of evidence and and so we're just going to take a quick peek at some of the evidence I think is the most compelling and that evidence comes from mainly to large cohorts there's actually a third in Taiwan as well which I'll mention briefly but the the two big cohorts these are cohorts where the researchers have been following groups you know populations that that are very health conscious these people exercise and they tend not to smoke and they you know they live healthy lives but within the cohorts that the people eat differently and so what they've got is about a third of each cohort is either lacto-ovo vegetarian or vegan and they divided up into meat eaters fish eaters which are fish eaters plus lacto-ovo semi vegetarians vegetarians and and vegans and so a third being either lacto-ovo vegetarian or vegan and the first is the Adventist Health Study – with over ninety six thousand participants the study actually began in 2002 but is ongoing and epic Oxford from the UK over 65 thousand participants and it began in 1993 and is ongoing so what's really interesting to know about these cohorts is people in these health-conscious cohorts regardless of the dietary group whether they're meat eaters or vegans they all die at about half the rate of the general populations in their regions as a cohort so it's it's so when and what why you need to know this is because when we compare vegans in this these cohorts with meat eaters we're not comparing vegans with the general population that are eating a western-style diet we're comparing them with meat-eaters who smoked the same amount drink the same amount exercise the same amount have the same kind of Education our about the same age so we're controlling for what we call con founding variables but we're also comparing to similar health conscious individuals so then the differences in you know heart disease and cancer and diabetes would be much smaller when you compare people that are so similar versus comparing with Western diet eaters so just know that so what are the findings well where cardiovascular disease is concerned compared again to similar health-conscious meat-eaters cardiovascular disease rates were 32% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans combined and in epic Oxford and that was controlled for everything except body mass index her body fatness but when body fatness was factored in it was still 28% lower the Adventist Health Study to cardiovascular disease was 42% lower among vegan men 23% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarian men it was actually 34% lower among pesco vegetarian men or fish eaters but there was no there were no significant differences in cardiovascular disease in women and hypertension in the Adventist Health Study too compared to similar health-conscious non vegetarians the risk of hypertension was 75% lower among vegans and 55% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarians cancer compared again to the similar health-conscious non vegetarians or meat-eaters cancer rates were 19% lower among vegans and 11% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study 2 there were 16% lower among vegans and 8% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarians diabetes in the Adventist Health Study 2 the risk of developing diabetes was 62% lower among vegans and 38% lower among lacto-ovo vegetarians and that was even controlled for BMI so it was controlled for all confounding variables so even with body fatness factored in vegans still had a 62% lower risk and this is where I bring in the Taiwanese because in the Taiwanese studies and they're coming out with quite a few studies they're actually at a Buddhist population where some Buddhists are meat-eaters and some are vegetarians and they're comparing similar health-conscious you know Taiwanese Buddhists with with the vegetarians versus the meat-eaters and in their diabetes study they reported that the risk of developing diabetes was actually 51% lower among vegetarian and they're very near vegan men and about 75% lower among vegetarian or near vegan women kidney disease compared to similar health-conscious non vegetarians the the vegetarians and vegans combined had 52 percent less kidney disease and 31 percent fewer kidney stones so that in and that was epic oxforts of so very very interesting because a lot of people think well there's more oxalates in a vegan diet they might get more kidney stones and in fact they get almost 1/3 less cataracts in epic Oxford the the vegans had 40% less cataracts and the and the lacto-ovo vegetarians had about 30% less cataracts than the non vegetarians and diverticular disease again epic Oxford they the vegans had 72 percent less diverticular disease and the lacto-ovo vegetarians had 27 percent less diverticular disease and so this is a very very quick rundown of some of the evidence in terms of disease risk reduction the evidence at really if you look overall at the evidence it is strong and highly consistent and you just do do the searches yourself and and the amount of information is honestly overwhelming but I think that the studies from epic Oxford and the Adventist Health Study – are really among the most compelling but and people I think almost all experts get this and and within the medical and Dietetic communities I think this is pretty well understood but what is is much less recognized is the power of plant-based diets in treat existing disease and so I think we we need to take a little bit of a look at that so what we know in terms of heart disease reversal is is that plant-based diets as far as I understand are the only diets that have been shown to actually reverse coronary heart disease and and the first studies we we had were really from Dean Ornish and if you remember 1990 the lifestyle heart trial and this was this was quite this was the study I thought would change the you know the the world and the way cardiologists practiced and and it didn't which is shocking to me but Dean Ornish took people who had such severe disease they were told there was nothing more that could be done for them they'd already had you know the triple bypasses and everything else they could have and so most of them were given a fairly short time to live and 82% of his participants experienced reversal the experimental group and and they compared you know the this sort of very low fat vegetarian diet and exercise and stress management and so forth with a sort of conventional step one diet for cardiovascular disease and the experimental group had two and a half fewer events in the five-year follow-up then then the control group and I you know I I think Dean Ornish has gone on to do some other work with which we'll talk about later but this was really quite revolutionary because we didn't think at that time that you could actually reverse or or decrease the size of plaques in blood vessels and so that proved we could reduce the size of plaques in blood vessels and that was to me pretty earth-shattering but what physicians always told me when I was giving talks was you know well that's all well and good we believe it but my patients would never do that and and my answer has always been and will always be you know your responsibility as a physician is to lay the options out on the table it's your patient job to decide what they can or cannot or will or will not do and at the very least you have an obligation or responsibility to lay the options out on the table because you know what some people who you would never suspect might choose to eat a healthy diet as opposed to having their chest cut open and be on medications for the rest of their lives so I think that's just the important point there and saurian caldwell esselstyn did a sort of similar study but in his he did not use the sort of exercise and stress management really strictly diet in some cases he is statins but he 72% of the the people in his cohort actually experienced reversal and his follow-ups he were even more positive vending Ornish's because he literally had nobody who followed the program that that had any kind of recurrence so it was really quite quite astounding but again he used a very low-fat vegan diet and and Dean Ornish's wasn't completely vegan but dr. esselstyn's was and then in 2014 he had 198 patients 177 that did the the program and stuck to the the program 21 that were non-adherent and the recurrence rate was 0.6% in adherent patients and 62% in non-adherent patients 13 out of 21 people had an event and you know if this wasn't you know it was a self-selected group there wasn't a control it wasn't randomized it wasn't kind of the gold standard clinical study that we need but it was still the the results were so compelling that it should tell us we need to do more studies on this cancer well cancers hard because you can't just take a group of cancer patients and say we're gonna randomized half of you to the you know gold standard of treatment and the other half will do this diet it wouldn't pass any sort of ethical boards so it's it's a little tougher but we have preliminary evidence that shows that well-planned or well designed plant-based diets inhibit cancer growth reduced DNA damage improved DNA repair lower igf-1 levels favorably alter gut microflora reduce levels of a top of a variety of toxic metabolites and just do a variety of things that make your body better able to deal with carcinogens and and we actually have some really interesting research from dean ornish on prostate cancer and the reason this worked is because he took men with early-stage prostate cancer who elected not to receive any treatment cuz they didn't really need it yet he had 49 people in a control group and 44 people in the lifestyle intervention he used the same kind of lifestyle intervention that he used with his cardiovascular disease patients and after one year six people in the control group had to start they started conventional treatment because their disease had progressed to the extent that they felt that they needed treatment nobody in the lifestyle group started treatment PSA dropped 4% in the lifestyle group and increased 6% in the control group but what was most amazing to me was serum from the lifestyle group inhibited cancer cell growth almost eight times more than serum from the control group so this was quite quite interesting and then in 2008 he released a study where I think it was about 30 30 men in this study I followed for about three months put on a plant-based diet and all the usual lab measures improved but what was the most stunning about this study is genetic expression changed nearly 5-hundred cancer promoter genes were down regulated and nearly 50 cancer-preventing genes were upregulated and this was huge we could actually change the expression of our genes by changing the food we put into our bodies so very very important research and then in 2013 a 5-year follow-up he actually reported on the telomere length and this was just shocking because telomeres are the little things at the ends of our chromosomes that basically tell us how long we might live if we don't get hit by a truck right and so and so what normally happens is as you get older they get smaller and smaller and smaller but people who were adhering to this you know sort of lifestyle change but their telomeres actually increased in size where of course the control group of their telomeres got predictably shorter so and again this was really quite a revelation we did not know that we could actually increase the length of our telomeres by simply changing our lifestyle what about diabetes well treatment of diabetes PCRM has done a number of small studies that have compared a vegan diet with a conventional diet and both the low-fat vegan diet and the American diabetic Association diet improved glycemic and blood lipid control but the improvements were consistently greater for those consuming the vegan diets in Europe the Czech Republic they did some studies comparing a near vegan diet there was a serving of I think low-fat yogurt per day that was the only animal product and they compared that to a conventional diabetes diet and the people on the vegetarian diet had better more improved insulin sensitivity reduced medications reduced visceral fat they had reduced oxidative stress markers they reduced their LDL cholesterol levels so a number of positive changes and then I want to just take a couple of minutes to tell you about the research that I've been involved with in the Marshall Islands and the Marshall Islands have among the highest rates of diabetes in the world eighty years ago diabetes was pretty much unheard of in the Marshall Islands when people actually lived off the land so they plant and of course the fish they could catch and that was pretty much it now the Marshall Islands for those of you that don't know are somewhere between about halfway between Hawaii and Australia in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and there's nothing within 2,000 miles of in any direction of the Marshall Islands they're very very isolated and I went there in 2006 and was involved with a study looking at a very aggressive lifestyle intervention program compared to a you know the usual care we had a hundred and sixty nine participants we and five overlapping cohorts so five different groups of people and and just to make a long story very short fasting sugars dropped 71 points in the first two weeks of the program on average and a close to 50 points by 12 weeks a 1c dropped about two points by 12 weeks on average Homa ir which is a measure of insulin resistance dropped almost well two and a half to three points CRP which is a measure of inflammation dropped one point two points 12-week sense and stayed that way so the really quite quite significant findings now I go back pretty much every year and continue to do work there and in 2014 we achieved an average blood glucose drop of 119 milligrams per deciliter or six point six million moles per liter which is just absolutely stunning we did an e by in another little island called another intervention in ebuy which is a little island that just wrap your brain around this it's 0.14 square miles with 15,000 people so it's just absolutely packed with people there is no room for growing produce we brought in a hundred and seventy earth boxes so that people could grow in these little boxes but even that's hard to find space for and we achieved an average glucose drop of about 50 milligrams per deciliter we were back in 2016 doing a an intervention for bikini island folks which is the island that the atomic bomb testing was done after the Second World War and the average fasting glucose drop we achieved there was 63 milligrams per deciliter we had over 11 participants with drops of over a hundred milligrams per deciliter so why the vegetarian advantage why do people eating plant-based do so much better and the the the simple answer is whole food plant-based diets work because they address the root cause of disease it's really that simple so how do they work well they essentially disable the drivers of chronic disease and there are several and I'll and we're going to talk about for inflammation oxidative stress lipo toxicity and dysbiosis and inflammation is what we know is is I mean most people know inflammation when they get a cotton it turns red and puffy but we can get this sort of chronic low-grade inflammation in throughout the body and it's a risk factor for almost every chronic disease you can think of including the big ones cardiovascular disease diabetes and cancer what what inflammation does is it promotes the growth of plaque weakening fibrous caps which you'll hear about from dr. Esselstyn a lot and it basically increasing the risk of rupture of these fibrous plaques it interferes with insulin signaling and it increases insulin resistance it promotes tumor growth and can trigger the loss of proteins involved in DNA repair so what causes chronic inflammation well over weight and abdominal obesity especially when the fat is carried in and around the vital organs this is what we call visceral fat as compared to subcutaneous fat which is at the surface of the skin processed western-style diets chronic chronically elevated blood sugar causes inflammation extreme exercise lack of sleep smoking alcohol pollution and stress are all things that can increase inflammation so is there a plant-based advantage well we had a systematic review and meta-analysis in 2017 that showed that vegetarian diets had a favorable impact on CRP levels a measure of inflammation in people that had been vegetarian for at least two years and what they found was of eight studies six found significantly lower levels of CRP and vegetarians one found very little difference and one actually reported higher levels in the vegetarians we only have two studies on vegans that I'm aware of and one was done in 2017 in Brazil with 268 participants the CRP levels in vegans were 0.5 milligrams per liter lacto-ovo vegetarians they were point eight milligrams per liter omnivores 1.1 milligrams per liter the second study was done in the United States in 2007 only 63 participants but interestingly the the CRP levels of vegans were almost the same as what was reported from the from the Brazil research group and this was 0.5 2 milligrams per liter they were compared to endurance athletes their CRPS were point 7 5 milligrams per liter and they were both compared to people eating a western-style diet and their CRP is were two point six one milligrams per liter so a lot higher than the omnivores in Brazil a worse diet I would expect oxidative stress it oxidative stress what we know is it induces damage to proteins DNA cell membranes and it increases the development progression and complications associated with chronic disease so what causes oxidative stress well it's very similar to what causes inflammation but an in one of the main things is an insufficient supply of antioxidants from whole plant foods overeating highly processed foods chemical contaminants products of high-temperature cooking alcohol tobacco stress and air pollution and basically these are in radiation so basically what we're looking at is all of those things are sort of Pro oxidants if you will and so there's an imbalance between the and the pro-oxidant and and for those of you that are really don't really understand this whole antioxidant thing oxidative stress is about free radicals in your body that are trying to steal electrons from other molecules because of the they're missing an electron but when they do that they turn whatever they stole the electron from into a free radical and it starts this chain reaction of destruction in your body now what if what what an antioxidant does is it comes along and says excuse me free radical would you like an electron and the free radical says why thank you yes but so it donates an electron but it doesn't turn into a free radical so it remains stable that's what an antioxidant is so that that's very helpful and we need more antioxidants and fewer Pro oxidants so is there a plant-based advantage in terms of oxidative stress well I you know do your search on PubMed and the list of studies is really extensive I've got a few written down here but the studies completely consistently demonstrate vegetarians including vegans have more favorable antioxidant status because they eat more fruits and vegetables and other antioxidant rich foods and and that's you know that's the bottom line this is something called lipo toxicity this is another major driver of chronic disease um it's one that many people have never heard of but it's one that you need to know about because it is hugely hugely important so most of us or all of us I should say have this way of storing excess calories and it's called our adipose tissue we put anything that is consumed in excess of what our body needs get stored as fat in adipose tissue but when our body gets overwhelmed with trying to shuttle this stuff to the adipose tissue just so much is coming in what can happen is we can actually store lipids in tissues that are not meant be lipid storehouses so we start to store lipids in the liver in the heart in the pancreas in the muscle tissue now we do store some lipids in the muscle tissue and intra my as interim io cellular lipids and and those are needed they're little important little organelles but they get sort of overrun with inter Maia cellular lipids that are not functioning well when we're eating too too much of this stuff so this is lipo toxicity is very important it can cause cell death or cell damage it can even as little as 1% of lipids in your pancreas can destroy beta cells so this is really important it can cause tissue inflammation it can cause mitochondrial dysfunction insulin resistance and especially when your liver when you end up with this sort of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease you're storing these lipids in the in the liver your liver makes your whole body insulin resistant when that happens so even 30% at a level 30 percent reduction in liver fat can reverse insulin resistance it's really quite phenomenal this is important just important knowledge to have it can cause elevated triglycerides it can cause elevated blood glucose so lipo toxicity is is something that we just need to be aware of what causes it overconsumption leading to overweight and obesity diets that are high in fat especially saturated fat and trans fatty acids and diets that are high in refined carbohydrates particularly sugars and fructose being more even more damaging than glucose and and so one thing to understand is as soon as I say fructose people think fruit but one thing to understand is that the liver has a capacity to be able to deal with the fructose and fruit efficiently it's when you take fructose concentrate it and pour it into your boo sodas and and into your processed foods and start eating it that way that the liver becomes overwhelmed it can't deal with that much fructose because fructose isn't like glucose where your whole body can deal with it the liver has to deal with it and so it gets overwhelming – very very very quickly so plant-based advantage here well vegans actually have the lowest rates of overweight and obesity of all dietary patterns they have lower level levels of lipids in the muscle the internment of cellular lippert lipids which are marker of lipo toxicity when compared to matched omnivores and they have the lowest intakes by far of saturated fat so they're at an advantage and finally dysbiosis dysbiosis compromises the integrity of the gut barrier with numerous adverse health consequences we get a decreased supply of essential nutrients reduced immune function increased inflammation and oxidative stress an elevated risk of obesity and chronic disease so what causes dysbiosis well unhealthy western-style diets for sure antibiotics medication stress and poor dental hygiene can all be contributors to dysbiosis is there a plant-based advantage well the and there are many studies that have looked at microflora in people eating different dietary patterns so we're just going to look at a couple of studies from 2017 the most recent studies the first study was that Brazil study where they actually looked at microflora as as well as other indicators of health like CRP the vegans had the most favorable microbiota followed by the lacto-ovo vegetarians and in this study the authors actually concluded that exposure to animal foods may favour an intestinal environment which could trigger systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in the second study this was a study from Italy a smaller study only 29 participants with just very small numbers 10 vegans 12 lacto-ovo vegetarians and 7 non vegetarians but in this study the lacto-ovo vegetarians and the vegans had the most favorable microbiota but the people who were lacto-ovo vegetarian had actually had the the most favorable of all which is interesting and it may be because they were consuming a lot of yogurt I'm not I'm not sure but both had reduced genotoxicity as well so the bottom line is the most effective dietary patterns are dietary patterns that minimize pathogenic dietary components and maximize protective dietary components when we look at the research and look at what components in the diet are actually associated with reduced risk of disease there's certain components that come up over and over again and they are fiber phytochemicals a plant enzymes which are responsible for converting some of these phytochemicals into their bio active metabolites or their active forms antioxidants anti-inflammatory compounds plant sterols and stanols pre and probiotics and then the micro and macro nutrients that come mainly from whole plant foods those are I mean macro and micro nutrients come from all foods but the healthiest are from whole plant foods so if we look at this list what I really want you to notice is is if you if you know if you look at every single item here and think about where these dietary components actually come from well first fiber where does fiber come from it comes from plants only plants phytochemicals well phyto means plant sits chemicals in plants antioxidants predominantly plants anti-inflammatory compounds predominantly plants plant sterols and stanols of course plants priam probiotics you can get from a variety of things but it's it's the prebiotics are only plants the probiotics are anything with with the bacteria you know fermented foods so so the bottom line is and with the World Health Organization said this you know in 2011 they actually said it in 1999 even but the plant foods are where the protective components are concentrated if you look at the pathogenic factors in food the you know you see trans fatty acids an excessive saturated fat and refined carbohydrates in excess of sodium neu5gc which is a pro-inflammatory molecule chemical contaminants all the products of high-temperature cooking Pro oxidants and and TMAO and you look at all of these things and think well where do these things come from well they come from the two categories of foods that the World Health Organization pointed out in 2011 processed foods with added fat sugar and salt and animal products trans fatty acids processed foods saturated fat mainly animal products refined carbohydrates processed foods excessive sodium processed foods neu5gc is the pro-inflammatory molecule in meat chemical contaminants you know we're looking at things that largely move up the food chain and and products of high-temperature cooking so a lot of them are concentrated animal products but in other things as well Pro oxidants like heme iron animal products TMAO animal products a TMAO is trimethylamine n-oxide and it comes from carnitine and choline we mainly get by eating meat and our bacteria in our colons change the teeth it changed the choline of carnitine into tea ma and it gets shuttled to the liver and gets changed into Tammy Owen it's very atherogenic and it can increase the risk of kidney disease and so on so again two categories of foods that are most most pathogenic and so when you look at what people are actually consuming you know 39 percent of our calories are coming from added factions at added fats oils and sugars 30 percent from animal products 22 percent from grains 90 or 95 percent of which are refined so refined carbohydrates 9 percent from vegetables fruits and legumes and probably half of that is orange juice and ketchup you know so you look at that and you say I understand why most of the people in this country are overweight or obese and dying of chronic you know diet induced diseases look at what we're eating most of what we eat is a threat to health that's the bottom line fortunately we have a choice so I want I just want to introduce you to the vallejo family and this this family this is andreas and and just just to give you a little case study he was diagnosed with cancer in well about I guess six years ago now he was 36 years of age it was cancer of the salivary gland and he decided to adopt a plant-based diet after doing a ton of research to give himself the best chance of survival and I think that and he is in remission by the way but the most exciting part of this story is what happened to the rest of his family because when he announced his his vegan diet his plant-based diet the whole family said whatever diet you're going on we're going on with you we we just want to stand with you and in this journey and and this was really quite remarkable because this this family was a foodie family their favorite pastime was going to the best restaurant in town and ordering the biggest steak and the five hundred dollar bottle of wine so this was this was their favorite you know it was it was the thing they did so this was huge but the story I want to tell you is what happened Carlos because Carlos was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 1993 he had just had a serious heart attack he had hypertension high cholesterol peripheral artery disease early stage renal failure recurring gout and he was being treated on 17 pills a day in 40 units of insulin he asked his doctor how long he could expect to live and his doctor said probably two years if you're lucky and he was told that every one of these diseases was progressive and irreversible there was nothing he could do to change the course of these diseases but when he went on a whole food plant-based diet after less than a year Carlos was taking zero insulin zero pills his fasting glucose was absolutely normal a 1c normal blood pressure 115 over 70 his arteries opened up without surgery he had no peripheral artery disease normal his kidney function went back to normal he had not one single further recurrence of gout and five years later six years later now maybe his numbers have been maintained without any of the medications he was on his heart disease reports he had very severe coronary artery disease his ejection fraction was 50% or reduced and that was 2005 in 2017 no evidence of abnormal cardiac activity whatsoever and he had a normal ejection fraction of 61% this is you know 12 years later it's really quite astonishing but this is what is possible not everyone is willing to make the necessary lifestyle changes but everyone has a right to know that lifestyle changes are a safe and highly effective treatment option that to me is the bottom line we know enough we know enough to protect people by developing policies that make healthy choices the easy choices for people we know enough to make lifestyle medicine the first-line therapy for individuals with lifestyle induced chronic diseases so now we will move on to what to eat how can we create a diet that provides maximum protection against chronic disease so we'll look at the ten steps to an optimal plant-based diet and step one is to make whole plant foods the foundation of the diet what I would suggest is 10 or more servings of vegetables and fruits each day with every color of the rainbow two or more servings of legumes every day intact whole grains being the predominant whole grains you're eating and you vary your your intake to meet energy needs not since it's one or two servings a day and generous amounts of herbs and spices I think this needs to be a new food group because we're finding that they're so pretty there's there are so many protective phytochemicals and antioxidants in these foods step two is to select our carbohydrates with care and you know carbohydrates are not the enemy carbohydrates are consistently protective to human health when they come from whole plant foods if you think about you remember the list of protective foods and pathogenic or protective factors and pathogenic factors and and we you know it was all plant foods are the most protective just take a look at the carbohydrate content of plant foods 92% of the calories from fruits are carbohydrates ninety percent in in starchy vegetables seventy-five percent in grains 70% in legumes and 58% in what we call non starchy vegetables 58% of the calories are still coming from carbohydrates if you look these are the healthiest foods on the planet they they provide between 60 and 90 percent of calories from carbohydrates how can carbohydrates be dangerous when you consider this simple fact it wouldn't make sense but the truth is refined carbohydrates are bad news and what the carbohydrate naysayers forget is that there's a big difference between carbohydrates that are packaged with fiber and phytochemicals and carbohydrates have been that have been stripped of everything of value to human health so what are refined carbohydrates well as I mentioned they're they're carbohydrates that you take away the fiber you take away the vitamins and minerals and and you know we do this with by food processing and so we've got these simple sugars sugars and jams and syrups and sweet beverages and we've got complex refined carbohydrates like white flour products and white rice and so forth so two of refined carbohydrates and if you think about sugars well what is recommended well the American Heart Association says men should not consume more than nine teaspoons a day women not more than six the Dietary Guidelines for Americans say not more than ten percent of calories that's about 12 teaspoons in a 2,000 calorie diet and the World Health Organization also says not more than 10 calories however they also add that less than 5% of calories would actually be better which is about six teaspoons a day would provide additional health benefits if people could limit sugar intake to the two that in my view added sugars how much should we be eating zero we don't need them we get plenty of sweet from fruits and dried fruits and just eating whole foods we don't need to be adding sugar but what a lot of people don't know is actual intakes are about 22 teaspoons a day and if you look at the numbers just a 20 ounce bottle of soda would be 18 to 21 teaspoons flavored coffee you could get 7 to 18 teaspoons of sugar in one coffee at 1 cup of fruit yogurt 9 to 12 teaspoons of sugar a cinnamon bun 12 an energy bar 5 even a quarter cup of barbecue sauce for instant oatmeal all three and a half it just adds up very quickly when you look at the numbers if you look at the sources of added sugars as a percent of calories in the diet almost half come from sweet beverages if people did nothing else but stopped drinking sugar they would make a huge dent in their health improved you know they they they would have less overweight and obesity and they would reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and so on so that really is step number one we get about 31% from from sweets and snacks so again we really need to look at what we're consuming and then if we look at at the complex carbohydrates that are refined many people are claiming that grains are harmful to health we see green brain wheat belly and all of the the Paleo folks saying do not eat grains but our grain is really helpful well the answer is you know I'm gonna sound like a bit of a broken record but only if they are refined and and that's really the bottom line but problem is 90% plus of the car of the grains Americans consume are refined and so when you know when people are saying carb carbs are bad they're talking about refined carbs that make up 90% of the grains people are eating on the other hand and when you think about it when we refine grains we take a whole grain that has three parts you probably know this but the bran the endosperm the germ and we remove two of the three parts we remove the bran and the germ where the fiber and the nutrients are are concentrated and we're left with the endosperm which is really the carbohydrates a little bit of protein a few nutrients but not not a whole lot in the process of turning a whole grain into say white flour we removed 80 to 90% of the fiber 70 to 80% of the vitamins and minerals and about 95% of the protecta phytochemicals and then who eats a bowl of white flour nobody nobody eats a bowl of white flour what do you do before you eat the bowl of white flour you know you had fat sugar salt color preservatives flavors and then you eat the white flour right and that's the problem not only are you removing most of what's value to human health you're adding a bunch of junk to it before you actually eat it that's harmful to human health so therein lies the problem the evidence we've got a 2016 meta-analysis of 45 studies that reported that whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all causes cardiovascular disease diabetes cancer and respiratory diseases so this is what we know all whole grains however are not created equal so a granola bar does not equal a bowl of oatmeal and a box of Kalat flakes even if they're organic does not equal a Kamath berry salad okay and so we need to understand their differences even within the world of whole grains there's differences because of the level of processing of those whole grains and so I've created this thing called the whole grain hierarchy the whole grain hierarchy is the top of the hierarchy are intact whole grains and when I say intact whole grains what am I talking about I'm talking about the grains as they're picked off the plant nothing added nothing taken away oak growth kamut berries quinoa barley that's what we're talking about and and the even better than cooking those intact whole grains would be sprouting them because when you sprout them you decrease anti nutrients and you increase a wide variety of nutrients and you increase phytochemical phytochemicals in that food by probably about 500 percent so some some interesting changes the next on the list would be cut whole grains so all we do is chop the whole grains we're increasing the surface area we're increasing exposure to oxygen so we could get some oxidation happening so one level down and we're talking about things like steel cut oats then the rolled whole grains then the shredded whole grains then ground whole grains or whole wheat flour products then flaked oil grains and then at the bottom of the barrel is puffed whole grains so why are we going down on this list because as we go down we we actually increase glycemic index so the rate at which these foods are absorbed into the bloodstream and impact our blood sugar and and insulin resistance and so forth but we're also increasing nutrition destruction of nutrients as we go down so we get fewer nutrients we get higher glycemic index and so not that you can't have some of these things down lower on the list especially people who use a lot of calories but for people who have disease and are trying to reverse disease I urge them to draw the line at the rolled Whole Grains and eat only the grains above the line and if they want really rapid results just draw the line at it intact whole grains any nothing else so that's just a you know one of the ways that I found in my work especially with diabetes and in the Marshall Islands that we see much more dramatic results more quickly is is sticking more to intact whole grains so carbohydrate common sense we want to get our carbohydrates from vegetables fruits legumes and whole grains we want to avoid all beverages without it sugars and we want to minimize refined carbohydrates sugars and starches and other highly processed grains a step three is to boost fiber and and we know fiber is nature's broom it keeps our intestinal tract clean it promotes regularity improves gut flora it increases satiety and reduces cravings reduces cholesterol stabilizes blood sugar reduces our risk of GI disorders called a rectal cancer and it enhances immune function and it also can help to lessen hormonal imbalances so if we think about how much should we consume how much people are actually consuming will the RDA is 38 grams a day for men and 25 for women and it's based on about 14 grams per thousand calories of food intake actual intake is about 15 to 17 grams a day in the American diet the vegan diet about 35 to 40 grams a day for women and about 45 to 60 for men and it's not too much different on a raw food diet now this is the shocker and I'm going to be doing a presentation I think it's on Monday on Paleolithic diets you know the new paleo diet vs. real Paleolithic diets and fiber intakes in the Paleolithic times were estimated to be between 70 and a hundred and 50 plus grams a day just so you know it's it's this is this is what humans consumed for millennia was far more fiber than even vegans consume so that one's hard to wrap your brain around but we'll be talking about that in the next lecture in my next lecture so we want to be aiming for at least 12 to 20 grams of fiber per meal but we don't want to just be sprinkling wheat brown on food we want to be getting fiber from a variety of whole plant foods and if you look at what are the most concentrated sources of fiber well beans are at the top of the list then avocado then grains berries and then other fruits and vegetables nuts and seeds the thing to know is only plant foods contain fiber all whole plant foods contain fiber and refined carbohydrates fast foods processed foods are low fiber foods and the no fiber foods of course are meat poultry fish dairy eggs oils and sugars zero fiber step 4 is to pick plant protein sources so when we compare you know plant protein sources versus meat some things come up so first of all legumes are the highest fiber food meat has no fiber legumes are high in phytochemicals meat has zero legumes are high in antioxidants meat has minimal antioxidants legumes are very low in fact generally and very low in saturated fat meats high in fat and high in saturated fat legumes of course are cholesterol free meat is fairly high in cholesterol legumes contain a type of iron called non heme iron which is is absorbed much more slowly into the system and it isn't a pro-oxidant whereas meat has heme iron which is absorbed very rapidly even if we don't need it and when we get excessive amounts can act as a pro-oxidant legumes don't contain hormones or antibiotics meat Ken legumes are free of neu5gc of course meat contains it you can't produce TMAO by eating legumes you certainly can by eating meat legumes are generally fairly low in chemical contaminants meat is high legumes don't contain any endotoxins meat contains tons it's the stuff that comes from the dead bacteria in meat and when it breaks down you end up with these endotoxins and then legumes if you look at legumes and mortality we saw in the Blue Zones that was the one food they all consumed but there was a study done that actually looked at food intake patterns of people seventy years of age or more from a variety of cultures the only statistically significant food indicator of longevity was legumes and our Legum intake for every 20 grams or 2/3 of an ounce what is that maybe a tablespoon and a half a very small amount of legumes there was a seven to eight percent reduction in mortality this is really quite shocking imagine if people ate a whole cup they would live forever it's just you know it's really this for me was very powerful very powerful study now if you look at the studies on red meat in mortality well they're just absolutely consistent this is the most recent five meta-analyses total red meat is that sort of dark line the unprocessed the bright red and processed the the pink and you can see that consumption of both red meat and and processed meat is is associated with increased mortality in every single one of these studies it's consistent and then people always ask the question can we get enough protein from plants and it's it's I don't know anybody that becomes a vegetarian it's the first question they get asked where do you get your protein and I love this cartoon by dad and Pesaro it says it's this little rodent here asking this huge muscular gorilla no meat at all are you sure you're getting enough protein and and the point being here that the largest strongest most muscular land mammals on the planet are vegetarians they're you know elephants and giraffes and hippopotamuses and these huge gorillas and they manage to build these huge muscles without any eating any meat and probably people can too and we look at some of the vegan athletes just go to vegan bodybuilding calm it's unbelievable you see these huge muscles that are you know completely a hundred percent vegan and and it just makes sense and and so how much protein do we actually need well the RDA for adults is about 46 grams a day for women about 56 for men or about point eight grams per kilogram body weight children need more athletes and possibly seniors may need as much as 25% more in Australia the recommendations for people seventy plus are 25 percent higher than they are for younger adults why because our digest the digestibility is reduced as we get older we're not able to absorb as many of the amino acids we need so and people that are eating whole food plant-based diet because of the fiber and the reduced digestibility of whole plant foods slightly we increase about ten protein recommended protein intakes by about 10% so that would you know bring us up to about 50 grams for women and about 60 grams or so for men or a little bit more than that it's still not a lot especially when you look at how much protein is in foods so you look at you know soy beans tofu so the soy foods are the veggie meats you're getting about 15 to 30 grams of protein per serving that's about the same as you get from a serving of meat from lentils and and other legumes you get about 14 to 18 grams of protein per cup from hemp seeds pumpkin seeds camel spelt wheat amaranth quinoa you get about 8 to 13 grams of protein per serving or per cup of cooked grains 1/4 cup of seeds and that's about the same as you get from two eggs or a cup of milk or an ounce of cheese it's not much different and then you get some from pretty much every other plant food you're eating as well but then people say ah but even if you can get enough protein isn't plant protein inferior to animal protein and the answer is this no all essential amino acids are what we call indispensable amino acids are actually made by plant makes no sense to think we get can't get them from plants it's where they come from you know animals have all of these amino acids in their muscle tissue they got it at some point along the food chain from plants it's where they come from so we can get plenty of essential amino acids from plants providing we consume a variety of plant foods over the course of the day including some protein rich choices like legumes and seeds and so forth and sufficient calories are eaten and for most people getting sufficient calories is not a huge problem step 5 is to fine tune our fat so we want to limit quantity to some extent and really focus on quality we want to limit saturated fat the Dietary Guidelines for Americans say less than 10% of calories but the American Heart Association the American College of Cardiology guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk reduction are five to six percent of calories and you know the percent of Americans that get less than seven percent of calories from saturated fat about five percent and guess what the average vegan gets about four to seven percent how many vegans are there in America about five percent of the population so it's the vegans who are actually on target period and five to six percent of calories means less than 16 grams on a 2,000 calorie diet so less than 16 grams well you get you know 22 from a couple slices of meat lovers Pizza you get 18 from a double cheeseburger 15 from a 6 ounce steak you know 9 from just 1 ounce of cheese 8 from a cup of milk and you compare that to the amounts of saturated fat in plant foods you know they're the only one that that's high at all is really coconut at an ounce of coconut at 7 grams but look at a half an avocado or an ounce of nuts or seeds that we're looking at somewhere between you know half a gram and and 2 grams for most of these foods we want to avoid trans fatty acids and in 2005 the FDA set a three-year time limit for the removal of trans fats and processed foods were there it's 2018 it's been three years so this won't be much of a problem I think in in fairly short order although 10% of trans does come from animal products as you probably know next we want to minimize exposure to damaged fats so we want to avoid fried foods completely just do not fry foods in in fact it's it's not a good plan we want to minimize or avoid oils in cooking we don't want to expose oils to high temperature and especially especially if the oil starts to smoke then we're producing products of oxidation that are pretty toxic to human health we don't want to burn high fat foods or allow them to blacken and we want to store high fat foods including shelled nuts and seeds in the refrigerator or freezer this is really important and a lot of people don't know this they have you know they have all sets of mason jars of different nuts and seeds on their shelf well nuts and seeds you see nature has a way of protecting the the fragile fats in in these foods and that's with a shell when you remove that shell you're exposing that nut or seed to oxidation and so over time you'll get more and more oxidized fats keep them in the freezer refrigerator to prevent that from happening and you want to minimize processed foods of course as well and then of course you want to make whole plant foods your primary sources of fat high fat whole plant foods are rich in fiber and antioxidants and phytochemicals and plant sterols and stanols and all of these protective components but we want to minimize concentrated fats and oils because they provide a lot of calories with very few nutrients I often say the you know oils are too the fat family as sugars are too the carbohydrate family sugars and white flour they're highly processed the fiber and many of the nutrients have been removed not either is poison it's you know the dose that makes the poison in very small quantities you know a couple of drops of sesame oil to give that kind of flavor in a peanut sauce no big deal but it's when you're you using massive amounts you know pouring it on yourselves using it in you know in your cooking in in large quantity not such a good plan instead use nuts and seeds as bases or nut and seed butters or avocados as your basis and salad dressings because then you get the fiber and all of the nutrients that go with those foods we want to ensure sufficient omega-3 fatty acids and for most people eating plant-based diets we're looking at about two to four grams of alpha linolenic acid a day and and so how do we get this well an ounce of walnuts gives us 2.6 and a tablespoon of ground flax seeds is 2.6 and if we grind them it'll be a little little more of a heaping tablespoon but but we're looking at right we want to grind them because you know these flax seeds are slippery little little things and they go right through us so if you grind them you make that omega-3 more available for absorption a chia seeds about 1.7 in a tablespoon hemp seeds about 0.9 and leafy greens half the fat in leafy greens or more is is omega-3 but they're so low in fat you'd have to eat a truckload you'd have to eat like a horse or a cow to get enough you need about 30 cups 20 or 30 cups right so and some people you know eat like that but not very many because you're eating all day long or you're juicing a lot but so you can get some from leafy greens but you usually need some nuts or seeds to balance it out so the next question where Omega threes is concerned is don't we need fish for EPA and DHA and the answer is no actually EPA and DHA are made by microalgae plants from the sea and so yes you can consume fish which got it you know at some point along the food chain from the microalgae or you can cut out the fish and just eat the microalgae you can actually culture it you don't have to rape the ocean to get it it can be cultured grown and and you can take it as a supplement or sometimes it's added to foods and so that that works very well so do we need to take DHA and EPA you know the answer is we don't really no vegans do very well in terms of chronic disease in terms of brain function in terms of risk of you know brain disorders we do very well would we do better if we took DHA and EPA vegans have levels of epa and DHA that are significantly lower than omnivores probably about one-third that of omnivore one-third in some cases one-half but definitely significantly lower levels and so if our levels were boosted would it give us an even bigger advantage is the question and we don't know the research just isn't there yet but we do know that epa and DHA have been associated with some health benefits so to me it makes sense for people that have increased needs for epa and DHA like pregnant and breastfeeding women to consider taking a supplement however you know young women are the most efficient converters of EPA in the era of ala to epa and DHA so alpha-linolenic acid the plant omega-3 can be converted into these bigger more unsaturated larger omega-3 fatty acids that are more biologically active the body can do that but the ability to do that is is somewhat limited but its highest in young women because they need to be able to convert for the you know brain growth of their infants and so on but still they may want to consider and there are people that don't convert plant omega threes to long-chain omega-3 is very efficiently people with diabetes metabolic syndrome or hypertension are poor converters populations who have traditionally consumed a lot of fish are poor converters and and this is because the enzymes required for conversion they just stop making as many because they don't need them they're consuming preformed epa and DHA so if you don't need to be converting that enzyme just we don't make as much of it and so if that's been happening for many generations they may they may need to to have a direct source so micro algae supplements there are a lot of supplements available and suggested intakes are 2 to 300 milligrams a day or even just taking it two to three times a week to boost your your sort of levels step six is to enhance gut flora there are many benefits to healthy gut flora and I'm just going to zip through them one of them is enhance nutritional status because gut flora actually produces nutrients it can protect against pathogens promote healthy body weight you can actually get some energy in short chain fatty acids that protect against colon cancer from from your gut flora you get better immunity reduced inflammation you get better maintenance of the integrity of the the sort of lining of the intestinal wall you get better brain function you get increased insulin secretion when you have a healthy gut flora so how do we improve gut flora well we want to eat a diet high in prebiotics from beans whole grains asparagus Jerusalem artichokes bananas onions and garlic these are especially high in prebiotics we want to eat food based probiotics like you know I would suggest non-dairy yogurt fermented vegetables sauerkraut tempeh me so these are all foods with the probiotics in them and prebiotics for those of you that don't know prebiotics are the the food for the bacteria probiotics are the bacteria just to get to understand that and then we want to minimize intake of foods that foster the growth of bad bacteria or harmful bacteria processed foods fried foods refined carbohydrates and meat we want to take probiotics especially if we're using antibiotics and avoid excessive alcohol consumption step seven is to maximize antioxidants and phytochemicals and phytonutrients destroy pathogens reduce blood pressure improve endothelial function they just do I mean the list is really pages and pages long they do a lot of things that will potentially protect against disease then antioxidants are compounds that help to protect a have protect against oxidative stress and disease processes and so how do we enhance phytochemicals and antioxidants well think color the richest sources of phytochemicals and antioxidants are often the most colorful to maximize protection we might want to choose the colorful vegetables rather than the less colorful choices you know black instead of brown rice or red instead of brown rice red instead of white beans for example so these are just some even quinoa you can get red or black versus white you you tend to get more phytochemicals when you choose the color and also variety the wider the range of plant foods in the diet the wider the range of antioxidants and phytochemicals you will be consuming we want to eat more raw foods and the reason for this is that there are enzymes in raw foods that when we cook those foods we destroy the enzymes that convert the phytochemicals into their active forms so for example myrosinase helps convert a compound called glucosinolates into the more active form called isothiocyanates like sulforaphane which is a very potent detoxifier of carcinogen so it's you know very very important and then we've got Alaniz and and my rosin is is in cruciferous vegetables and Alaniz is in Allium vegetables and it helps convert alan to the active form allison and then the other thing we can do is to start to start sprouting and and when a seed is germinated anti nutrients are broken down enzymes are released so that the stored forms of nutrients can be available for the plant growth and the phytochemical army that's poised to protect the plant just multiplies and and so these are really helpful things as well step eight is to reduce harmful chemical residues and food additives and so we're talking here about agro chemicals environmental contaminants products of food processing and cooking and food additives and when we consume these things they can wreak havoc in a number of ways they can cause oxidative stress and inflammation they can disrupt hormones and and B if you will o be so gens make increase obesity they can damage vital organs damaged DNA and our central nervous systems and they can increase the risk of chronic disease so agro chemicals pesticides plant growth regulators veterinary drugs like hormones and antibiotics and anti microbials and the way to avoid these things is to choose organic and so this is you know it's a simple way not everybody can afford to do everything organic but one thing that you can do is go to the environmental working groups you know Dirty Dozen and clean fifteen and if you have to buy some conventional stick with the the cleaner crops and and buy the sort of the Dirty Dozen buy organic at least environmental contaminants like heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants or P o peas and dioxin packaging materials like lead and and BPA and ten and the most concentrated sources of heavy metals and peel peas are animal products fish meat and dairy products and so what do we do eat lower on the food chain eat more plants eat fewer animals and use foods without excessive packaging jars instead of cans and bpa-free lining in cans the products of high temperature cooking heterocyclic heterocyclic amines are known carcinogens they're formed only when we cooked meat at high temperatures meat poultry fish at high temperatures plants can't form heterocyclic amines because you need to have current you need to have creatine or creatinine the food to make heterocyclic amines plants don't have any so we don't have to worry about that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a second product of of cooking these are known mutagens they're they're linked with a number of cancers and they're present in grilled or charred meat poultry and fish but also in any plant food that's grilled and blackened how we can avoid this is by avoid blackening foods and avoid heating foods above 392 degrees or Fahrenheit or 200 degrees cent centigrade advanced glycation end-products these are are basically compounds that are advanced products of the mayor dree action and they're irreversible products of the mayor dree action and they impair immune function they accelerate aging they contribute to pretty much every disease you can think of including Alzheimer's disease and what you see is their highest in bacon broiled frankfurters grilled or fried meat but even whipped butter even fried tofu Parmesan cheese even roasted knots so you can see it it you know they they accumulate probably more in animal products than plants but can form in plant foods as well oh and they they I'm trying to remember they oh well they'll form at any temperature acrylamide is is a substance that's formed from starchy foods and the main component that forms acrylamide is is something called AG era teen or AG era teen which is no not a guarantee knit some sorry it's a no it's asparagine okay I'm mixing up the chemical in mushrooms with asparagine but asparagine is in is the amino acid that you need to form acrylamide and it's mostly found in in potatoes both sweet potatoes and regular potatoes and so just to know if you're heating them above 250 48 degrees which you always do when you bake you're forming some of these compounds but they're formed most when you deep-fry so potato chips and french fries are the worst and I'm just gonna whip down this so how do we avoid that this will use food preparation methods that minimize the production of harmful compounds some wet cooking methods instead of dry cooking methods and if you're using dry keep heat lower and then finally harmful food additives you just want to avoid artificial sweeteners although you know read you can read labels but preferably use fewer foods with labels we want to be using whole foods the most common food additive is salt and 80% comes from processed foods and if you look at the amount of salt in foods like a teaspoon of salt is 2,300 milligrams of sodium you can go down this list ramen dill pickle soup tomato sauce veggie burger Raisin Bran Italian dressing potato chips salted peanuts you can actually eat an ounce of potato chips and an ounce of salted peanuts and get less sodium than you would from an ounce of Raisin Bran and people go no way that's impossible but when you put salt on the outside of a potato chip or a peanut you taste it it's just there whereas you put it inside batter and you make something like flake cereal and it's it's throughout the batter you don't taste it in the same way so you need to read labels step nine is to meet nutrients meet your needs for all the nutrients of concern and in plant-based diet the biggest nutrients of concern are b12 and vitamin D and we're not going to talk a lot about these but just know they need to be taken care of and and one of the things that I've done in my career is a dietitian is to create resources that help people to do vegetarian and vegan diets very well because to me a failed vegan is really exhibit number one for why we need to eat meat and and and so it's really important we get this right and so the resources that you know I've written in created and the food guides and so on are meant to be essentially foolproof you'll you'll you'll you'll get this right if you follow these these guidelines and and I mentioned that and step 10 is to maintain a healthy body weight so one thing that that I think the blue zones especially Okinawans have done really well is something called Harry Hachi Bou they eat until they're 80% full instead of stuffing themselves so they're under eating a little bit all the time and this is helpful we want to minimize foods without it fat sugar and salt fat sugar and salt you know in nature these flavors are so dilute when you take and concentrate those flavors and processed foods it messes up your appetite control center and you can't stop eating them and so this is something we just really need to be aware of we need to say these foods I'm just not going to do because I need to reacquaint my appetite control system with with you know whole unadulterated foods it makes a huge difference we need to avoid super sizing except for salad we can supersize our salads and drink water not sugar just do not ever drink sugar period that's an important step and there's no question that well-designed whole food plant-based diets are optimal for human health but a diet is really only optimal if it is ecologically sustainable and ethically justifiable we have got to as human beings who are populating this planet at almost eight billion people now we have got to consider the consequences of our food choices beyond ourselves there is no diet that any one individual human being can consume that will reduce our carbon footprint more or help us to preserve the planet more than a plant-based and we know that the United Nations environmental program X their expert panel concluded that two activities have a disproportionately large effect on the planets life-support systems and they are animal agriculture especially raising livestock for meat and dairy and the use of fossil fuels and the United Nations environmental program expert panels recommendation a global shift towards a plant-based diet the National Academy of Sciences in 2016 there the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences are reported the following that by 2050 greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by 29% compared to doing what we're doing now if everybody on the planet followed the global dietary guidelines to eat more fruits and vegetables less meat sugar and calories and 70% if everyone consumed a vegan diet there recommend the author's recommendation a global shift towards a plant-based diet and of course in order to be truly optimal our diet has God also be ethically justifiable for people you know if everyone ate plant-based the global calorie supply would increase by an estimated 50% and according to this report in Scientific American it could effectively wipe out hunger and for animals and and you know I mean for people we care deeply about the people that are starving to death but if you take a look at what's going on with animals today we are slaughtering 70 billion that's almost 10 times the human population we're slaughtering 70 billion sentient beings every year every year for food and this is not including anything from the oceans this is just land animals the vast majority probably close to 90 percent are raised in Capo's CAFO is our concentrated animal feeding operations and these if you know nothing about Capo's just educate yourself because you know I I don't think there's anything that we as human beings can do to justify what we're doing to these creatures and and you know dr. Albert Schweitzer gave gave us some food for thought when he said the following the time is coming when people will be amazed that the human race existed so long before it recognized that thoughtless injury to life is incompatible with real ethics ethics in its unqualified form is extended responsibility to everything that has life and I guess we could simplify this by saying why should we be contributing to pain suffering and death when it is completely unnecessary not in only is it unnecessary we're harming the earth and we're harming ourselves when we do so we need to think about this we have a choice when we consider the consequences of our food choices not just for ourselves but beyond ourselves a plant-based diet becomes an ecological and an ethical imperative and as human beings on this planet we have a responsibility to take action and to do what we can to change our trajectory we are destroying the planet for future generations and it has got to stop and it's got to stop now and I know sometimes it's scary but it's a hell of a lot to think about what we're facing if we don't stand up and be counted and and so I will say thank you very much for being here and for attending and and these are some of my books thank you so much thank you thank you so much and I will be here for I leave on the sixth and I'm very happy to meet you to learn from you to share with you and so please don't hesitate to ask questions or or or if you have information that might be of value please share thank you [Applause]


  1. Hi Dr. Davis! Amazing video! I've resolved my acid reflux by going plant based. 💖😎🐼⚘🌲🍕

  2. I recently moved to MD and found myself
    Traveling for work. I found myself behind trucks that were shipping “live” (half dead) chickens. This is why I started looking into a plant based diet. I consider myself a kind person- and I see how this is a kind thing to do for myself and the world! Thank you.

  3. You are amazing !! I want to ask you a question, I am A+ love corn and beans however, it makes me sick, horrid end smells, I want to see if I can overcome this? thank you

  4. Have to go with the science… which points to a whole food plant-based diet. "Science is an effulgence of the Sun of Reality, the power of investigating and discovering the verities of the universe…" "…our natural food is that which grows out of the ground." ~ Baha'i Faith

  5. Great lecture. Very informative. Though I think it’s a bit too restrictive. Restrictive diets don’t encourage more people to go vegan. Having a list of 500 “don’t eat these” scares people and is probably overkill. I think it’s better to have people chargrilling their Brussels sprouts than it is chargrilling their dead animal flesh.

    Very few will adopt a vegan diet if they think it’s bland, boring, and flavorless. All these restrictions guarantee this.

  6. Thank you. Sebi. How do the people cook(soak & pressure cook) the legumes?(Dr. Gundry: lectins). How do they prepare the plants(de-seed, peel, steam, all raw, all cooked, a % raw & a % cooked? Do they eat plants grown only in the area they live? What beverages do they drink? So many conflicting studies & research; to line it all up to do the so to speak "meet" in the crosslines. Foods are not real foods anymore. According to studies & research of recorded history hybrids have been around centuries. YES, HERBS & SPICES!! We consider the oxilates, tannins, lectins, the body shape, blood type, et al. I eat a selective vegan protocol lifestyle. Times are growing stranger. Deception high. The goal is so the people do not know what is true or false; that is the goal. PREPARE!!!!!

  7. My little papillon dog had a skin disease she asked for some of my prince Charles duchy organic asparagus and Tender stem broccoli her skin started to get better. I couldn’t get the organic so I got the none organic she wouldn’t eat it and walked away, this shows she can smell the chemicals on the food, up to now I had spent £200. On vet bills the Green organic veg is a lot cheaper she also has McAdams free range dry chicken food no added fillers. The point I’m making is animals are a lot clever than we give them credit it for its humans that need a kick up the backside. Dog have a million times better sense of smell than we do?🌱🐝🥕🙏

  8. I agree humans should not be slaughtering animals but they are breeding them to be slaughter. The puppetmasters are destroying the planet, not you and I. Stop funding and eliminate UN, Trilateral Commission, the Secret Government and all their manipulative programs.

  9. Not sure eho wrote the information on the youtube post but Global climate issues is BS. They are controlling the weather, components in the skies by aerosol spraying if heavy metals, using Laser tech, HARRP program and messing with our planet. Has mothing to do with CO2. Plant more plants and trees…

  10. Thank you! A very comprehensive information of how we can care of the earth we live in and the food we ate. It’s true we are destroying our planet and we unknowingly do so without realizing we are actually destroying ourselves in the process! Recommend this for everyone to watch!👌🏻 Excellent information to help us on our choices for food!❤️👏🏼👏🏼👏🏼

  11. it all makes sense, and i would do it ,but unfortunately I know five friends who are vegetarian and vegan. They all look unhealthy and are often ill and lacking energy. i think you have to really know what you are doing,otherwise you are starving your body of what it needs. Why do we have incisor teeth if not to eat meat?

  12. Yes, I am shocked to see many fat people in US. I growth up eat very little meat and a lot of vegetables. People always asked if I am on diet, not really, just lifestyle.

  13. Industrial agriculture is horribly destructive. Crop farming in the USA produces more tons of soil lost than tons of yield. The chemicals used on crops – herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and now herbicides used as 'harvest aides' to speed dry down of whole grains in the field – these are showing up in the air, rain, ponds & lakes, streams and rivers, ground water and well water. These man-made chemicals are contaminating the vegetables, 'healthy whole grains', and fruits we eat. And they are showing up in our bodies, in breastmilk and the cordblood of newborrn babies. Yes, the young of humans.

    The habitat destruction created by industrial farming is massive. Windbreaks and hedgerows that provided valuable habitat for numerous wildlife species on traditional family-scale farms, have been ripped out to make fields bigger and bigger to suit the larger and larger machines that plow, cultivate, spray, and harvest. Streams have been turned into drainage ditches to make fields easier to work with gigantic machines- increasing erosion and further destroying habitat for yet more species.

    Animals that do manage to make a home in these multi-thousand acre industrial ag 'factories' are plowed, sprayed, and harvested by the machinery – right along with our soy, corn, and healthy whole grains.

    Dr. Paul Mason has an interesting talk on the role of fiber in the human diet:

    On saturated fat (which is found in products made from seed oils, like margarine and shortening, as well as animal fats – and lard is about 1/3 unsaturated fat) :

    Dr. Ede on the effects of the modern industrial diet on mental health:

    On plants as food:

    N. Gedgaudes on 'Is There One Universally Foundational Human Diet?'

  14. The more I listen to and read the material from vegetarians, the more I am convinced they do not understand the pitfalls and limitations of epidemiological studies and the significance of confounding variables. An article in JAMA from 2001 analyzed the Adventist population in California and ranked the factors believed to be associated with their living 7.4 years longer than the average white Californian. The most important factors in rank were: 1. Not smoking 2. Not being overweight (BMI) 3. Eating nuts! 4. And exercise. But in listening to vegan advocates, you would think that researchers had isolated the variable of being vegan as the most important and even only factor leading to the longevity benefit. Also, why not include Mormons in the "blue zone" list? They live 8.4 years longer than the average white American? Are they not included because they are not vegetarians and would contradict the intended results?

    Rule number one here is that epidemiological studies cannot establish cause and effect. And that alone wipes out almost 100% of the claims of the vegan "experts." They exclusively rely on epidemiological studies to make their arguments.

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