Haskap Nutrition James Dawson part 1

Haskap Nutrition James Dawson part 1



generally going to do however I did a little bit of freelance work for the cherry producers in December and so I gave the results of that experiment at the Saskatchewan fruit growers association and Margaret air and so I gave the presentation she said well I'd really like it if you give a similar presentation to a scab a GM should take all the cherry stuff ever that's okay so what I'm gonna talk about like I said I usually talk about horticulture but what I'm going to talk about today is actually the metabolisms of the secondary metabolites I look at in the fruit and what they do within the body okay it's generally not a field that you would expect for her kind of a horticultural producer group but she felt and it's probably a good idea that you guys have at least some idea of how these actually work within the human body especially because you guys are planning to market them and the science on how exactly these things work has changed a little bit over the past ten years from how they thought it worked that how it's beginning to appear that it actually works and if you don't keep up with the science of it you ended up making claims about things that aren't really backed up anymore and you don't want to get caught there because it kind of makes silly so anyway I'm just going to give you a quick overview we're gonna talk a little bit about the metabolism of certain compounds keep in mind that this science is not it's not a hundred years old you know what I mean but the last ten years has been the whole field of the science and so it still emerges and we're still finding stuff out and as far as individual compounds go it takes time for the scientific community to get them and work with them on a specific level and get results back on them so that all the compounds and improvement can't be understood all at once you have to be very selective and kind of work at it slowly okay anyway keep that in mind over here okay so one of the pathways we're gonna talk about two pathways within a Scott we're gonna talk about this one it's called the phenyl probe annoys pathway it's from an amino acid called phenyl alanine that's where it gets its name that's not important the other bud pathway we're going to do with is called terpenoid and I'll talk a little bit more that when we get to it because it's not a typical secondary metabolite you generally see within fruit it's a little bit weird but we'll get to that after so there's a bunch of classes here these are the classes Bob sort of Bob was talking about just a minute ago so there's our flavonol class comes right out this dihydroxy flavin home one of the other ones he was talking about was the the phenolic acids which this is one of the group there's a whole offshoot of other metabolites that come from this specific compound there's the flavonols and the other compounds talking about anthocyanins okay the female propylene metabolism has a couple hundred metabolites most of them are flying specific some of they're very elaborate really far down the metabolism where a lot of these things can even double and triple up and make pretty elaborate compounds you generally see certain ones for instance this this is para or meta hydrous coming Americ acid you see this in almost every fruit video Co flavonols and almost every group any colored fruit you see generally has anthocyanins so it's a pretty general metabolism for most fruit crops okay and that's cap is no different okay so I'm just going to go over quickly what some of the major compounds within our fruit is the way that's used to be looked at was that we didn't care what the specific compounds were we're only really interested in their total antioxidant capacity okay what Bob showed his results from our little thing there was doing contents of the total classes he outlined some classes I just outlined what compounds are in those classes okay but that doesn't give you specifics it just tells you what compounds are related to that group and how many of them in reasoning is in there okay specifics are becoming specific compounds are becoming more and more important as we go on one of the things they used to really like to do was total antioxidant tests okay and this is where you even boil down a certain class and said this is the content of a certain class what you did was you challenged your extract what this basically is you take fruit extract it methanol okay that's your extract what you generally doing these antioxidants is you take a reactive oxygen a real reactive oxygen usually synthetic chemical that produces Ross when you give it the right conditions and we actually challenged by our antioxidant solution with that Ross so it was directed directing the same beaker okay your hand EOCs Messina Ross in the same place at the same time in the interactive okay that was how they used to do the test I'll get the slider to what we stopped doing those tests but anyway just get back to what we have in the proof so these are hydroxy cinnamic acid I just highlighted three of them two of them are actually super similar meta and para cody Americ acid we also have chlorogenic acid this is the thing that keeps didn't taste of coffee there's a lot of chlorogenic constant coffee your tongue breaks it into two pieces one aquinnah Gus if want to cut the deficit that's why you get such a acidic taste in your mouth when you drink coffee it also Browns apples brown stuff you buddy not will leave alone chlorogenic acid problem arises it makes brown color combination compound okay so these are hydroxy Simmons and avid acids there's e63 c6 c3 there's a notice that called hydroxybenzoic that are just c61 these all go together to create good to be labeled the phenolic acids okay that's got this fairly high in phenolic acids this one is flavonoids okay this is another area class of phenol for opioid military servers to rule yeah this particular beast in this class have gotten a lot of attention from the medical community I'm gonna outline a couple studies later on where they talk about it but this specific compound has gotten a lot of interest so what they do here is they extract get this compound make it in a pure form and they start feeding it to animals and they look at their in this case therefore they're both mental and physical performance anyway keep this in mind so there's actually three different connotations of this compound in linear sorcery Lea all the difference is is this come this little Oh H group here is replaced by a sugar and these are the three sugars that are most prominent this one here is named a biocide we have recently discovered this compound in in bullosa fruit it doesn't typically hang out in the other lineages like kirill russian or japanese the only time we've ever found in any appreciable amount has been in the bullosa material and it's the predominant one in the bullosa material typically most has have a very high content of quercetin routine outside with a little bit of glucose ID but when we look at the pilosa material is completely on its head a partner apparently had any routine outside and had a lot of sambal biocide Veloz is Candida species so it's it doesn't mean too much right off the bat there's some indication that this particular glucose might be more available to your stomach lining which is a pretty important part of how these things actually getting your body ban to pass through your stomach line right you need them so they have to actually come into your body so there's some evidence that possibly this glucose likes a little more a little more available but when I've shown you these pictures this is from a paper of a human flea and what they're showing here is the antioxidant capacity when compared to vitamin C okay they use vitamin C as the standard they called it a hundred and so what this says is that queer certain is a little bit better than two times the antioxidant vitamin C is okay this was where the original science started these things are so such good antioxidants that we all assumed that's what they did right they're so great at it that must be what they did but scientists can be pretty stupid and we went with this assumption for a long time until somebody was quick enough to realize that they just can't work like that I'll show you one second just for just two kids you guys get in here raped under fruit on a fresh weight basis it's about a half a milligram per gram fresh week just to give you an idea how much total reasoning you recruit which is actually pretty high okay the last one is the color compounds okay they're called anthocyanins we looked at the one in a scab is very specific it's called cyan Ihnen it's almost always in the three glucose side form up to 95 percent of the actual total is in this form okay and usually usually any colored fruit this is the most abundant field promenades you're fine same with a scab okay when anything is concentrated enough so that you can see it visibly there's a lot of it in there okay there's a lot of it at Nazca nasca cut in half you see the internal colorization it's both great but hard to work with okay so I've outlined adjust the classes and phenol profanation so now I'm going to talk about what in the world they actually do okay so what's an antioxidant going on about it what is an antioxidant well wikipedia the greatest dictionaries it shouldn't be the greatest dictionary identifies the molecule that inhibits the oxidation of another molecule that is pretty simple and actually it's a really good definition for antioxidant that's what it does okay many classes of molecules in fact are antioxidants if not reserved a stuff in fruit there's lots of stuff phenol propanol it's the ones I just talked about those are antioxidants and they're pretty good at sorbet tur what we usually call vitamin C is actually not about an antioxidant the cup for all our vitamin E is a fat soluble antioxidant it's also does a pretty good job and the carotenoids you get out of your carrots they're all antioxidants there's a whole host of not even explaining that are in your body all the time and a whole those that are in plants all the time but this definite definition of antioxidant is very loose you see almost anything will inhibit another molecule for being oxidized you just have to give it the right conditions to make it happen see so an antioxidant is that's such a great feature okay this is how an antioxidant works in in vitro when challenged with a radical this is how an antioxidant in this case the phenolic acid actually dissipates the radical okay so a little bit of structural chemistry real quick what the radical craves is an extra electron okay that's what the radical wants okay so we will steal it from other compounds the phenolic Slough luckily enough are actually able to give up this hydrogen that's so wanted by the RUS and actually keep it stability what you're seeing here you see this agent come on up here we're performing over two molecule the molecule is still stable even though it's lost its hydrogen group cool so we got another hydrogen group that can come off and lose drew doesn't matter it's still stable okay so it goes through a couple oxidases and steps that's why they're good antioxidants got two things to do it's got this o H group which is actually a really nice place for antioxidant to sit it can quench that reactive oxygen and if you see this this is called an internal conjugated ring system it promoted that it makes the molecule exceptionally stable okay especially this is how it works in a tube in a piece of glass in your lab that's over it's okay multiple hydroxy groups come together in system just like it sit so if you ever want to know how an antioxidant works that's how okay I showed some of these over here just to give you an idea of the range you see it you start adding O age groups the antioxidant potential of that particular molecule increases yeah so under the real show so in vitro antioxidant activity what I'm saying about under glass you'll look at your vitamins ain't it funny that beta carotene or pro-vitamin a and alpha tocopherol have exceptionally low antioxidant capacity as compared to my can see about 1/4 the vitamin C low E however and I was also complaining second the phenol propene rights have real large ones what's up great there and in reducing antioxidants just just great right so it'd be lovely it'd be lovely if these phenyl propane heights were acting the same way as there are other vitamins but they don't okay so I've been talking about it in vitro verses in fear in vivo in us versus in vitro in glass this how it works in glass you put everything in a one little beaker you shake it around you see what happens that is chemistry okay this is a human you see all these tissues that our combatants have to pass in and out of how many different acetyl conjugations they have to have just across the barriers see all these enzymes the government's potential specifically characterized the carrier from back and forth this is the real science of the molecules okay and it's a hell of a lot more difficult than this right and I know a lot more complicated yet for years we define antioxidants as how well they worked in here and still have a large percent of the well maybe a little uneducated about the science still prefer to talk about antioxidants and how they work in here but it's not how it actually works it has to get in you get around and get to where it actually has to go to do anything at all okay great so let's talk about absorption for a second because yeah they have to get into your body right so can you absorb them or not for instance the carotenoids wait a minute studies suggest 50 to 75 percent to the vitamin a you consume was taken directly into your body and incorporated vitamin E 21.86 there were a big range here is basically the nutritional status that they kept on being looked at if there actually have their steady supply of vitamins they don't take out this much them all the time okay can the last one ascorbic vitamin C a staggering 95 percent can actually get into the body especially with patients with scurvy those are high percentages that's a lot that's all right let's look at the absorption some of the other female broken lines were talking about anthocyanins very low above availability generally less than 1% of anthocyanins you consume actually make it into your body less than 1% most are excreted yeah one percent excreted after consumption they say secreted at the consumption here because they test your urine afterwards because if you metabolize something it has to be changed within your body and excreted so that's where they check to see where these if these metabolites that actually come out okay less than 1% excreted not a lot going in all right flavonoids this is actually pretty good about 5% can actually be absorbed by your body for phenol broken right that's actually huge that's a lot okay and they've done a lot of studies to show that there's extensive metabolism of those compounds after they do get in your body so not only are you taking them in in a relatively decent amount the body is actually using them which is important okay the last ones are phenolic acids these vary a lot by compound some of the more regular ones like pathetic acid actually making your body pretty well all the ones like some of the hydroxy bands always don't make it in there so it's kind of a mixed bag this is one of the most diverse groups of these you know broken hides

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